Snuff Bottle and Stopper
Calligraphy and Seals
Poem by Emperor Qianlong

Artist/maker unknown, Chinese

Made in China, Asia

19th century

Porcelain with incised and overglaze enamel and gilt decoration; pink-stained ivory stopper with ivory spoon

2 5/8 x 1 1/2 inches (6.6 x 3.8 cm)

Curatorial Department:
East Asian Art

* Gallery 236, Asian Art, second floor, left-hand case

Accession Number:

Credit Line:
Gift of Major General and Mrs. William Crozier, 1944

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The red inscriptions are seal marks. The inscription in black on one side is a poem "Red Leaves," written by imperial command of the Qianlong Emperor (translated):

Autumn sets the glorious trees blazing with colors,
Opposite each other, we quietly park our carriages;
My guest, the Director of Merit awards, is known as Mu Zhi

Snuff-made of tobacco that is ground into a powdered form and spiced with aromatic substances-was introduced to China from Japan in the late seventeenth century. Chinese elites believed that the powder had medicinal properties, and initially used cylindrical medicine bottles to hold this new "Japanese tobacco." Soon after, the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1662 - 1722)-known for his fondness for snuff and a devoted patron of the arts-established a series of workshops in Beijing to manufacture small, high-quality objects for court use, including snuff bottles. The repertoire of bottle shapes, materials, and motifs dramatically expanded under imperial patronage, and artisans facilitated the dispensing of the tobacco by adding stoppers with attached ivory spoons.

Snuff bottle production reached aesthetic and technological heights during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1736 - 1795), who particularly appreciated the artfulness of the miniature containers. Members of the Qianlong court frequently exchanged the exquisite receptacles as gifts, and by the mid-nineteenth century, snuff bottles had become mandatory items of apparel for Chinese gentlemen and those who aspired to this status. The popularization of these vessels helps account for the many glass bottles produced to resemble jade, agate, quartz, lapis lazuli, and other precious materials: glass snuff bottles were less expensive and a good imitation passed all but the closest scrutiny. Chinese interest in snuff bottles as collectibles continued into the twentieth century, when delicate, inside-painted wares dominated the market.

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