Photo by Steven Crossot
Augustus Saint-Gaudens’s Diana has adorned the top of the Museum’s Great Stair Hall for more than eighty years. Created in 1892–93 as a gilded weathervane for the tower of New York’s Madison Square Garden, the beloved sculpture recently underwent a remarkable transformation when conservators repaired and preserved its copper structure and restored its original gold leaf finish.Diana is arguably the best-known work of Saint-Gaudens, the most celebrated sculptor of America’s Gilded Age. When installed on Madison Square Garden’s tower, it turned and glittered 347 feet above the street at one of the highest points in Manhattan. Representing the grandeur and sophistication of the Gay Nineties, its brilliant gilded form caught the sun during the day and was illuminated at night by the city’s first electric floodlights. Although some were shocked by Diana’s brazen nudity, the goddess of the hunt made a fitting ornament for the sporting and entertainment arena below, a building conceived as “the most magnificent amusement palace in the world.” As the optimism of the Gilded Age faded into the twentieth century, Madison Square Garden fell into bankruptcy and deteriorated. Thirty years of weathering atop the tower had diminished Diana’s golden surface, and the sculpture was removed just prior to the building’s demolishment in 1925. When Diana was adopted by the Museum in 1932, it was cleaned and repaired (but not regilded) before it was installed in the grand staircase. In the summer of 2013, the Museum’s conservation staff analyzed and documented Diana’s condition and performed tests to determine optimal cleaning and gilding techniques. They removed corrosion from the sculpture’s copper surfaces and coated them with a paint containing a corrosion inhibitor. 180 square feet of gold leaf was then meticulously applied. As Saint-Gaudens did not like the look of bright gold at eye level, conservators will tone down the gilding to achieve the appearance the sculptor intended.
Behind the Scenes
Investigation and Cleaning Tests
In this video, conservator Adam Jenkins explains the conservation work performed during the first six weeks of the restoration. Watch as a workspace is created around the sculpture in the Museum’s Great Stair Hall, the inside of the sculpture is explored, the ball pedestal and bow and arrow are disassembled, and dramatic cleaning of the copper surface begins.
Physical and Chemical Analysis
As the restoration of Diana continues, Chair of Conservation Andrew Lins explains a few of the tests being performed on the sculpture by the conservation team. Watch as Diana undergoes steam cleaning, X-ray imaging, and ultrasonic thickness testing, and then take a look inside the Museum’s analytical lab, where tiny samples of the sculpture’s original gold are viewed with a scanning electron microscope.