Pardon our dust while we update this corner of the website.

Aspects of Violence (Himsa)
Page from a manuscript of the Sangrahanisutra

Artist/maker unknown, Indian

Made in Gujarat, India, Asia
or Rajasthan, India, Asia


Opaque watercolor and ink on paper

Sheet: 4 3/8 × 10 1/4 inches (11.1 × 26 cm)

Curatorial Department:
South Asian Art

Object Location:

Currently not on view

Accession Number:

Credit Line:
Purchased with the Francis T. S. Darley Fund, 1935

Social Tags

There are currently no user tags associated with this object.

[Add Your Own Tags]

According to the philosophy of the Jain religion, animals that are violent to one another are reborn in hell as surely as men who practice cruelty. Each hell has a matching image. The upper left is the first hell for "unreasoning tigers," and the illustration shows a tiger attacking a black buck antelope. The adjacent scenes show a domesticated cheetah carrying a rodent, a bird of prey (perhaps a Eurasian sparrow hawk) with a smaller bird in its beak, and a Gaja-Simha (mythical elephant-lion) with its elephant prey. On the far left of the lower row, a mongoose kills a snake. At the far right, a big fish eats a little one, a scene described as "fish doing bloody deeds." Just to its left, a man shoots rabbits, a scene described as "human beings doing bloody deeds." The sixth hell (second from the left) shows a seated couple and implies the violence of lovemaking.